At the end of each Module, use this forum to discuss what you have found interesting from the module. Right a page of reflection each on each model.Three models in total and expecting three pages. A component of the Final Project is a final reflection paper and this discussion forum may help you reflect on your knowledge development for our student learning outcomes.
The following Student Learning Outcomes may be used as trigger questions for discussion postings – but feel free to discuss any topic related to our course or raise questions and/or comment on content. Also if you find a helpful resource that you would like to share (i.e., website, book) please share here.
Describe the onset and development of childhood stuttering ASHA IV-C, V-B
Describe and be able to support the factors that contribute cause or promote stuttering. ASHA IV-C
- Instruct a set of interview questions to be used during the collection of a child’s case history and anticipate the relevance of potential client answers. ASHA IV-D
- Correctly differentiate normal from abnormal disfluencies during a live conversational speech sample. ASHA IV-C, IV-D
- Construct an evaluation outline/table for a child with a suspected fluency disorder. Include how each listed procedure may lead to a diagnosis of “normal”, “stuttering-like” speech or other fluency disorders. ASHA IV-D
- Measure both qualitatively and quantitatively normal and abnormal disfluencies contained in a conversational speech sample ASHA IV-D
- Construct a treatment plan (outline) for a child who stutters. Include information appropriate to share with family members and other caregivers/teachers. ASHA IV-D, IV-F
- Demonstrate the following primary fluency facilitating techniques: easy, relaxed approach – slow movement (easy onsets, soft touches, smooth transitions and reduced rate) along with stutter more fluently techniques. ASHA V-A, V-B
Expert Solution Preview
As a medical professor responsible for creating college assignments and evaluating student performance in a medical college, the following answers are provided for the content regarding the onset and development of childhood stuttering, factors contributing to stuttering, interview questions for a child’s case history, differentiation of normal and abnormal disfluencies, construction of an evaluation outline for a child with a suspected fluency disorder, measurement of normal and abnormal disfluencies in speech samples, construction of a treatment plan for a child who stutters, and demonstration of primary fluency facilitating techniques. These answers are designed to provide comprehensive understanding and guidance for the students’ learning outcomes related to childhood stuttering.
The onset and development of childhood stuttering, as described by ASHA IV-C and V-B, refers to the initiation and progression of stuttering in children. Stuttering typically begins between the ages of 2 and 5, with the majority of cases starting around 2.5 to 3 years of age. The onset of stuttering can be sudden or gradual, and it often involves disruptions in the child’s fluency, such as repetitions, prolongations, or blocks in speech. These disruptions may occur on individual sounds, syllables, or words.
The development of childhood stuttering can be categorized into three stages: the beginning stage, the intermediate stage, and the advanced stage. In the beginning stage, the child may exhibit occasional stuttering, which may not be a concern for parents or caregivers. However, as the child enters the intermediate stage, stuttering becomes more frequent and noticeable to others. The child may also experience tension or struggle during speech production. In the advanced stage, stuttering becomes more severe and may significantly impact the child’s communication and social interactions.
It is important to note that not all children who exhibit stuttering behaviors in the beginning stage will progress to the intermediate or advanced stages. Some children may naturally recover from stuttering without any intervention, while others may require treatment or therapy to manage their stuttering. Early identification and intervention are crucial in supporting children who stutter and promoting their communication skills.
Multiple factors contribute to the onset and development of stuttering, as supported by ASHA IV-C. Although the exact cause of stuttering is not fully understood, research suggests that a combination of genetic, neurological, and environmental factors may play a role.
Genetic factors play a significant role in stuttering, as there is a higher prevalence of stuttering among individuals with a family history of the disorder. Certain genes have been identified as potentially contributing to an increased susceptibility to stuttering. It is important to note that genetic factors alone do not guarantee the presence of stuttering, but they can increase the likelihood of its occurrence.
Neurological factors also contribute to stuttering. Neuroimaging studies have shown differences in brain activation and connectivity patterns in individuals who stutter compared to those who do not. These differences may impact speech motor control and coordination, leading to disruptions in fluent speech production.
Environmental factors, such as familial and societal influences, can also contribute to stuttering. Stuttering tends to occur more frequently in families with communication difficulties or high levels of stress. Additionally, societal attitudes and reactions towards stuttering can influence an individual’s self-perception and confidence in communication, which may further exacerbate stuttering.
It is important to recognize that stuttering is a complex disorder with multifactorial influences. By understanding and being able to support these contributing factors, healthcare professionals can provide comprehensive care and support to individuals who stutter.
In order to collect a child’s case history, healthcare professionals can utilize a set of interview questions to gather relevant information. These questions, as instructed by ASHA IV-D, should cover various aspects related to the child’s fluency and communication skills. Anticipating the relevance of potential client answers can help guide the assessment and inform subsequent interventions or treatment plans.
Some potential interview questions for a child’s case history may include:
1. Age of onset: At what age did you first notice changes in your child’s speech fluency?
2. Family history: Is there a family history of stuttering or other speech disorders?
3. Developmental milestones: Did your child meet other communication and language milestones within normal ranges?
4. Impact on daily life: How does stuttering affect your child’s communication in various settings, such as home, school, or social interactions?
5. Emotional and social impact: Have you noticed any changes in your child’s confidence or self-esteem related to their stuttering?
6. Coping strategies: What strategies, if any, has your child developed to cope with their stuttering?
7. Speech therapy history: Has your child received any previous speech therapy or interventions for their stuttering? If so, what were the outcomes?
8. Other medical conditions or interventions: Are there any other medical conditions or interventions that may be relevant to the child’s stuttering?
By asking these interview questions, healthcare professionals can gain a comprehensive understanding of the child’s stuttering profile and tailor their assessment and treatment plans accordingly. Anticipating the relevance of potential client answers helps in identifying areas of concern, establishing therapeutic goals, and providing appropriate support and guidance to the child and their family.