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Topic 2 DQ1

Child abuse and maltreatment is not limited to a particular age—it can occur in the infant, toddler, preschool, and school-age years. Choose one of the four age groups and outline the types of abuse most commonly seen among children of that age. Describe warning signs and physical and emotional assessment findings the nurse may see that could indicate child abuse. Discuss cultural variations of health practices that can be misidentified as child abuse. Describe the reporting mechanism in your state and nurse responsibilities related to the reporting of suspected child abuse.

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Introduction:
Child abuse and maltreatment is a complex and disturbing issue that can occur in any age group, including infants, toddlers, preschoolers, and school-aged children. It is important for healthcare professionals to have a thorough understanding of the types of abuse and the warning signs that may indicate child abuse. In this answer, we will focus on one age group and provide an overview of the types of abuse commonly seen among children of that age, warning signs, cultural variations in health practices, reporting mechanisms, and nurse responsibilities related to the reporting of suspected child abuse.

Answer:
For the purpose of this answer, we have chosen preschool-aged children (3-5 years old). The most common types of abuse seen among preschoolers are physical abuse, emotional abuse, neglect, and sexual abuse. Physical abuse can include hitting, slapping, kicking, or burning, among other forms of physical violence. Emotional abuse includes verbally attacking or belittling a child, making them feel worthless or unwanted. Neglect can take different forms, including physical neglect, medical neglect, educational neglect and emotional neglect. Finally, sexual abuse can take the form of sexual touching, exposing a child to sexual acts, or forcing a child to perform sexual acts.

Warning signs of abuse can include unexplained bruises, burns, or other injuries, frequent illnesses, changes in behavior or personality, increased aggression or withdrawal, and age-inappropriate sexual behavior, among others. Physical and emotional assessment findings that could indicate abuse include poor growth and development, poor hygiene or nutrition, anxiety, depression or post-traumatic stress disorder.

It is important to be aware of cultural variations in health practices that can be misidentified as child abuse. For example, some cultural practices may involve cupping, or the use of hot cups on the skin to treat certain illnesses or injuries, which could be mistaken for bruising or physical abuse.

Reporting mechanisms for suspected child abuse vary by state, but all healthcare professionals have a legal and ethical responsibility to report suspected cases of child abuse or neglect. Nurses should be familiar with their state’s reporting requirements, including what information is required in the report and to whom the report should be made. Nurses also have a responsibility to protect the child from further abuse and to support the child and family during the reporting process.

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